AVIONICS Training by OSTROUMOV Ivan
Chapter 11. Displays

11.3. Components of Synthetic Vision System

In General, the visual displaying in the SVS consists of three main components:

  • intuitive vision;
  • alarm of danger;
  • navigation elements

Intuitive vision

Synthetic vision system displays the image of the environment in which the Aircraft is presented. This is an intuitive display, because it reflects the environment that the pilot can see in case of no meteorological elements in the daytime. SVS reflects all that the pilot would have to see through the window in ideal weather conditions. Usually SVS combined with the display of basic flight parameters necessary for piloting, and displayed together on the PFD. Such integration allows the pilot to accurately represent the location of the Aircraft in the space and quickly assess the air surrounding the situation. An example of the SVS display on the PFD is shown in Fig. 156

Fig. 156. Aerobatic(piloting) display with SVS [98]

The main aerobatic(piloting) information that is displayed :

  • angles of Aircraft position in space (roll and pitch);
  • indicated and vertical speed;
  • absolute and relative height;
  • the line of the horizon;
  • line glide path according to information from the landing system

The image corresponds to the actual display of the topography of the underlying surface with the current flight altitude PC.

The navigation display also displays information about system SVS. An example of the SVS display on ND shown in Fig. 157. Wth this three-dimensional map of the area is depicted from the top view, which allows the pilot to explore the space around the Aircraft.

Fig. 157. Navigation display with SVS [96]

The SVS system provides a safe flight, regardless of visual visibility

Alarm about danger

Accurate representation of the actual terrain and other items that pose a danger to piloting, ensure safe piloting during all phases of flight. SVS can be combined with TAWS or even fully to perform its functions. With this SVS continuously analyzes the trajectory of the Aircraft, comparing it with the planned and the three-dimensional position of it in the environment in case of detection of a possible collision with elements of terrain or artificial buildings. In case of revealing of possible danger of collision, depending on the magnitude of the estimated risk, elements that are dangerous, are highlighted in a specific color when displaying. In general ,the alarm about danger may be provided :

  • areas of terrain;
  • ground-based artificial obstacles (buildings, vehicles, other Aircraft);
  • objects in the air (air traffic, flock of birds);
  • atmospheric phenomena (weather, turbulence, icing, wind shear);
  • areas of possible falling into forbidden airspace.

Alarm of SVS provides a comprehensive prevention the pilot of any danger that may harm the flight performance. Using SVS gives a holistic awareness of the pilot on potential threats that helps to prevent the development of undesired dangerous proximity (airprox) during flight

Navigational elements

Use of SVS elements, that point the route, three-dimensional area of the planned trajectory of the motion like a tunnel or line with navigational markers allow the pilot to be clear about aircraft’s location in relation to planned. If necessary navigation elements SVS allows the pilot orientate quickly and adjust the direction of movement of the ACFT. Display of given flight route is especially actual in terms of flight operations in areas of complicated terrain at low altitudes. Example of display of planned trajectory of ACFT with help of rectangular tunnel [46] shown in Fig. 158.

Fig. 158. Tunnel display the planned trajectory [46]

Depending on the phase of flight when the pilot while piloting requires a fundamentally different information; in accordance with this SVS provides display of data from different navigation systems, depending on the phase of flight [51].

Taxiing

For ensuring fast execution of ground operations SVS must provide an opportunity of safe performance of ground maneuvers while driving within the airport territory. SVS reflect actual three-dimensional environment depicting buildings, aircraft, ground moving objects and other important elements. Reflection must exactly match the real environment in bright daylight for operations at night when visibility is reduced. Example of display SVS information on phase of taxiing shown in Fig. 159.

Fig. 159. Information from SVS on taxiing phase [51]

Takeoff

At the take off phase SVS provides to the pilot information about the distance of ACFT to the RWY. Thus, SVS allows the pilot to control the direction of take-off and signalize about unwanted deviations. The main elements of SVS, which appear at this phase are:

  • Runway;
  • The central line;
  • Terrain and artificial obstructions;
  • Distance from the beginning of the runway;
  • Marks denoting ground and air traffic.

Flight of the route

At this stage SVS helps the pilot to control main aeronautical parameters and displays the planned trajectory of flight. Especially appropriate is the image of the terrain and artificial buildings in case of flight at low altitude. Important for the pilot is also information about the air traffic from TCAS and ADS-B; this allows you to "see" the relative location of other ACFT. Meteorological phenomena can also be denoted by special marks.

Approach and landing

Landing is one of the most difficult phases of flight. Majority of aircraft accidents happen at this stage. Visibility of earth's surface plays a key role, and deterioration of visibility causes reduction of safety and security and can cause a crash. SVS allows the pilot to be clear about location of ACFT relative to the earth's surface, runway and line of glide path regardless of the weather conditions and time of day (Fig. 160).

Fig. 160. SVS display on landing phase

SVS system provides flights in any conditions, that limit visibility, like the daytime flight in clear day. Because majority of disadvantaged cases occur at night and due to bad weather conditions, the SVS can reduce their number during this period to their respective numbers in the daytime on cinditions of excellent visibility. This ensures a qualitative leap in providing appropriate level of safety of flights. SVS implements an integrated approach to the creation of a common information system that provides for pilot a comprehensive data about area around the ACFT, and the combination of this information system with major aeronautical parameters provide an effective way to control the ACFT.

AVIONICS training course materials represented only in demonstrative mode. If it useful, all grammar mistakes will be corrected and more documents will be added. Let me know if you interest in avionics.
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Avionics training in details by
Ostroumov IvanOSTROUMOV Ivan, PhD
Associate Professor, www.sciary.com/ostroumov