Aviation Administration FAA has developed and adopted international standards of civil aircraft airworthiness in adjutancy with Aviation Regulations (Federal Aviation Regulations - FAR), Part 25 .
In accordance with the Paragraphs of the 1301, all-board equipment must be installed in the areas, designated to it, and perform all the functions.
Paragraph 1303 indicates the presence and flight - navigation instruments allocation.
The equipment that must be installed so that a pilot can see it from his workplace:
- ambient temperature indicator;
- clock, showing hours, minutes and seconds with a second hand or with a digital display;
- magnetic compass.
The information, which should be provided to each pilot:
- airspeed indicator. If Airspeed limitations vary with the altitude, the indicator must have an indication of maximum allowable air speed, which shows the rate of speed, depending on the altitude;
- vertical speed indicator;
- Turn and Bank Indicator of gyro-type;
- Roll and pitch indicator;
- Heading indicator (magnetic or nonmagnetic).
Installing of warning device of exceeding maximum allowable speed with efficient audio alarm is obligatory. Each pilot must be provided with Mach number indicator.
Paragraph 1305 describes control devices of the propulsion and its arrangement in the cockpit.
Paragraph 1307 requires the installation of two or more independent sources of energy, systems for electronic equipment protection, two systems duplex communication with a control panel for each pilot (failure of one of the systems should not affect the operation of another), and two independent navigation systems.
Paragraph 1329 is devoted to automatic control system. It should be of approved type, and be constructed so that the automatic control could be quickly and reliably off by the pilot so that it does not affect the airplane control.
Paragraph 1431 refers to all radio and electronic equipment. Controls and systems allocation should be established so that the operation of any device or system does not affect the work of other avionics systems.