Chapter 1. Basics of avionics systems

1.1. Avionics systems development

From the very beginning of aviation and electricity were inextricably linked. Simplified historical development of avionics given in Table 1. The Second World War gave a significant boost to the development of wireless communication, radiolocation, navigation and others. For example, aircraft of World War II B-29 was completed by about two to three thousands of avionic components; Bomber B-52 - a member of the Vietnam War - containing more than 50 thousands if components and supersonic bomber B-58 - 95 thousands.

Avionic systems are designed to provide for pilots the opportunity to fly from one point of the Earth to another safely and cost effective with fuel and time.

One of the main functions of avionics equipment is automation of the control of AC, including the enforcement of avionic systems all functions necessary for the proper performance of safe flight with the lowest number of crew members. This leads to the relentless development and improvement of existing systems onboard of AC. It is the result of the improvement and development of existing avionic systems is to reduce crew of AC to two persons: commander and co-pilot.

Due to the intensive development of airborne electronic systems during World War II and opposition to the US and the USSR in the late 1960 formed the basic avionic systems. However, these navigation systems, communications, control and flight display were built basically on analog technology. Typically, each system consisting of a large number of different blocks. Communication between all units of the system provided by wired connection "point - point". The signals transmitted to them by changing of the voltage or "switch - breaking" circle. Each of avionics occupied much space and significantly increased the weight of the AC.

The emergence and spread of digital lines in aviation data and digital technology have greatly reduced the size of each block of avionics and extend their functionality. At present the cost of avionic systems account for roughly 60% of passenger aircraft.

Table 1. Important dates of avionic systems development
Systems Development
The first experiments with radio on board of aircraft and autopilot
The first equipment of non-directional radio beacons
The appearance of radar and remote sensing
The appearance of the wireless communication equipment, gyroscope, Attitude indicator, onboard radar, instrument landing systems, hyperbolic navigation systems, aircraft defendants
The transition to transistor technology. The introduction of secondary radar and short-range technology
Using of inertial systems. The origin of satellite navigation systems
Using of digital avionics and microwave landing system
Using of microelectronic technology and digital flight control systems
"The computer revolution." The appearance of integrated modular avionics and micro electromechanical systems. Use of preventing dangerous encounters with aircraft and electronic displays
Implementation of network technologies and aircraft collision avoidance systems
Implementation of the concept of automatic dependent surveillance systems and synthetic vision
AVIONICS training course materials represented only in demonstrative mode. If it useful, all grammar mistakes will be corrected and more documents will be added. Let me know if you interest in avionics.
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Avionics training in details by
Ostroumov IvanOSTROUMOV Ivan, PhD
Associate Professor, www.ostroumov.sciary.com