Chapter 7. Navigation and surveillance systems

7.4. Navigation and surveilance

Navigation systems assigned for determining location of aircraft and providing exact observance of given trajectory of flights using radio equipment.

Navigation systems can classified by the degree of autonomy : autonomous and non-autonomous. For the operation of autonomous systems enough on-board equipment. Most autonomous Navigation systems are based on the principle of radar. During the execution function of non-autonomous navigation systems interact with other radio-technical equipment located outside on the aircraft.

non-autonomous Navigation system

  • Automatic Direction Finder
  • VOR equipment
  • DME
  • ILS and MLS
  • Surveillance systems
  • Trafic collision and avoidance system

To non-autonomous systems include all NAVAIDs systems.

Radio beacons of these systems can be located on the earth's surface or on board a spacecraft. Ground radio beacons are designed for driving aircraft along the flight plan, to remove the airfield and landing. Radio beacons located on the ground at the turning route point and aerodrome zone. The signals which emitted or retransmitted with the help of beacon, take the bearing equipment placed on board. Measuring the signal, the receiver determines the direction of the radiobeacon, distance or deviation from the desired direction. Radio beacons usually used for airplane flight to radio beacon or from radio beacon. In addition, two spaced radio beacon can determine the position of the aircraft.

Located in different points radio beacons works in different frequencies, allows to set radionavigation system for a specific radio beacon. In addition, radio beacons usually transmit Morse code signals own recognition.

Location of each radio beacon with describing their parameters of its operation, marked on aeronautical charts

Pilot should builds trajectory of flight that it pass over the radio beacon. This line of trajectory is broken line in broken point are licated radio beacon. Flights devided into the segments, piloting reduced to withstand area for the next radio beacon. For this in the begins of this segments crew sets up equipment, which receivs signals from radio beacon to the selected radio beacon with the help of control panel. On the modern aircraft, equipment FMS, pilot on the begins of take off sets trajectory of future flight. During the flight FMS automatically selects next radio beacon and configures board equipment on it. In result, pilot always know the direction on the future radio beacon according to the flight plan.

Automatic navigation systems

  • Altimeter;
  • Doppler speed measuring device and angle of displacement;
  • Weather radar.
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Avionics training in details by
Ostroumov IvanOSTROUMOV Ivan, PhD
Associate Professor, www.ostroumov.sciary.com